Online Edition
December, 1998

Gospel Truth: The Fourth Gospel?

Professor Andrew Lincoln was installed as Lord and Lady Coggan Professor of New Testament on October 21. This is an edited version of his inaugural address. It excludes about 80% of the original text.

For some time the dominant ethos in many parts of the academic world has been that New Testament scholars should restrict themselves to linguistic, historical, sociological and literary enquiry and leave questions of the significance or truth of the documents they are studying to others, theologians and philosophers. This myth of neutrality toward truth claims is slowly being broken down. Increasingly it is recognized that interpretation is no innocent activity.

Modern and Postmodern charges
A recent book on the Gospel of John provides one of the catalysts for this address. It is entitled Is John¹s Gospel True?, and its author, Maurice Casey, was a colleague of mine in the University of Nottingham. History, for Casey, is meant to tell us what actually happened, but, using the tools of historical criticism, he claims that John¹s Gospel is historically inaccurate.
But this sort of finding is hardly news, and was recognized by the Church fathers. Origen in his commentary on John, after noting the many places where " the careful student of the Gospels will find that their narratives do not agree," claimed that " the student will either renounce the attempt to find all the Gospels true, or will consider that their truth is not to be sought in the outward and material letter." Casey wants to stay with the "outward and material letter" and so finds John not to be true.
Casey then adds to his indictment that this Gospel is morally deficient because it is anti-Jewish and has fostered anti-Semitism, and claims that this is such a pervasive feature of this Gospel that it is irredeemable. And it is indeed true that a ghastly line can be traced from this GospelÕs portrayal of "the Jews" through Cyril of Alexandria and of Chrysostom, medieval anti-semitic tracts, and Luther, to the Nazis.
CaseyÕs book can be said to represent a typically modern approach to the question of the truth of JohnÕs Gospel. It has an ideal of detached scholarship, objective knowledge, and an ethical absolute.
But there is another approach to the question, is JohnÕs Gospel true? It is built on the premise that this Gospel is no more or less true than any other grand claims to truth, because they are all a lie, all disguises of the will to power.
You will guess that I shall be exploring a response to both modern and postmodern charges against the truth of the Fourth Gospel. I shall be proposing that what is needed is a different view of truth, in which truth encompasses but cannot simply be reduced to matters of historicity, ethics, or power. And I shall be trying to persuade you to read JohnÕs Gospel with me in a way that sees this different view of truth as at the heart of its message.

The Fourth Gospel as History-Like Narrative
It would be an error to judge JohnÕs biography by the canons even of ancient historiography, let alone of modern historical study. The term "history-like", thought by some to be a weasel word avoiding hard questions of historical truth, is in fact entirely appropriate when used of ancient biographical narratives such as the gospels. We should expect that, in line with other ancient biographers, the fourth evangelist has composed a narrative that was an interpretive superstructure built around some core events in his traditions.
According to its penultimate verse, this particular ancient biography of Jesus is based on the testimony of the Beloved Disciple. He is the ideal witness. But from the start of the Gospel seeing and testifying do not carry their straightforward everyday sense. They are part of the overall metaphor of a trial. Thus in 1:7,8 John the Baptist is said to testify to the light so that all might believe. His testimony points to the significance of JesusÕ identity as the embodiment of the divine light, but it does not refer to a physical seeing of a light or the reporting of any historical fact.
And in John 19:35, after the narrator has told us that one of the soldiers pierced JesusÕ side with a spear and at once blood and water came out, he adds, "And the one who saw has testified." Again, the language stresses belief in the significance of what has happened to Jesus. The truth of the Beloved DiscipleÕs witness is emphasized so strongly because, in the cosmic lawsuit motif that is dominant in the narrative, the decisive moment is GodÕs verdict in the death of Jesus. The positive verdict of life is expressed symbolically through the blood and water flowing from JesusÕ side. This takes up the Exodus tradition about water from the rock in the desert, and its Jewish interpretation in which Moses struck the rock twice, the first time drawing blood and the second time water.

The Fourth Gospel and Anti-Judaism
If we accept the widely held definition of anti-semitism as hatred of the Jewish people as a group because they are Jewish, then this Gospel is certainly not anti-semitic. The author has in mind those Jews who have put Johannine Christians out of the synagogue for their beliefs; they are representatives of the unbelieving world as a whole. Thus in 18:35 Pilate, the Roman governor, proves himself to be a Jew in the special sense of this narrativeÕs discourse, namely one who belongs to the unbelieving world.
What is most offensive to modern sensibilities is the fierceness of the Fourth GospelÕs polemic, especially in chapter 8. But nearly all the accusations Jesus makes in John 8 were made by Yahweh against Israel in Isaiah. Intra-Jewish and early Christian polemics continued in this vein. Thus Paul calls other Jewish Christian missionaries "servants of Satan".
The dualism of this Gospel, which associates "the Jews" with the devil but links believers with the Spirit, is ethical, not ontological. The distinction between belief and unbelief determines on which side of the dualism a person is to be found in JohnÕs narrative. The negative side of the dualism applies to all unbelievers, whether they are Jews, Samaritans, or Greeks. The narrativeÕs dualism is meant to be temporary, since the whole point of instigating the lawsuit is to overcome the sinful alienation that produces such a dualism. The similarly fierce indictments by the prophets were also not ontological statements but judgments aimed at producing repentance.
Thus the narrativeÕs labels and rhetoric have a totally different purpose than condemnation of Jews as Jews. To hold the truth of JohnÕs Gospel still involves being willing to bear some of the scandal of particularity and to maintain that with GodÕs revelation in Jesus Christ in the midst of Israel something decisive occurred that brought about and continues to bring about a division between belief and unbelief.

Gospel Metanarrative and Violence
In the context of a lawsuit, what is the issue in JohnÕs narrative? It is whether the crucified Jesus is the Son of God, and therefore one with God. On the cross the truth is established. True judgment in the lawsuit is given, in and through JesusÕ death. By absorbing the violence of the negative verdict of death, Jesus becomes the source of the positive verdict of life, as blood and water flow from his side.
As has been mentioned, there are echoes of Exodus 17. There the people bring a suit against Moses, and they are prepared to sentence him to death by stoning. Moses discerns the real question at stake: "Is the Lord among us or not?" Yahweh promises to stand trial to receive the sentence of judgment the people wish to carry out on Moses. It is when Moses strikes the rock and the true judge takes the penalty the rebellious people deserved that provision is made for them and a stream of life-giving water gushes out from the rock. Now here in the Fourth Gospel, in the person of the incarnate Logos, this God is depicted as being willing to be tried and judged. As Jesus as witness and judge absorbs the violent judgment of humans in this world, instead of passing on its destructive consequences, he opens up the possibilities of new life.

The Fourth Gospel and Gospel Truth
The only way to affirm the truth of this Gospel is by our participation in its story, by telling it and living it in the community of those who are willing to eschew hatred and to risk following the witness of JesusÕ suffering love. Our historical consciousness, ethical idealism, and issues of power and ideology are no longer the determinative criteria of truth by which we judge the Gospel. In this Gospel the embodiment of the divine judgment, the ultimate arbiter of truth, is the one who is himself judged. Seated on the cosmic bench is the victim of this worldÕs violence who with pierced hands and side offers the positive verdict of life, not to one group that can lay exclusive claim to it, but to the world.

Words from the Acting Principal

Let me openly confess that when I first came to Wycliffe twenty-four years ago, it was just to claim a job. I knew almost nothing about Wycliffe's history, values, and purposes, and so I came with no prior commitment to its wider mission. I knew none of the College's faculty, students, or graduates.

Since then I have grown almost every day in my love for Wycliffe and in my appreciation for the contribution it makes.

I love that Wycliffe takes Scripture seriously. It's part of our devotions and our prayer offices, our preaching and our curriculum, our research and our meetings. We aspire to the intellectual honesty and the spiritual discipline and the study required to understand it, and we even work at the parts of it that we ourselves might not have chosen to include. I love our motto, the Word of the Lord endures.

I love that Wycliffe honours six sound doctrinal principles, drawn right from the Reformation's rediscovery of the Bible. I love our Anglican tradition of faith seeking understanding, and our Protestant principle that received traditions and fashionable opinions need to be critically tested.

I love our mission heritage, which reminds us that Christ died for the whole world, and which, rightly understood, condemns all cultural captivities of the Gospel.

I love that Wycliffe is governed by faithful and smart but otherwise pretty ordinary layfolk, not by intellectual elites or clerical establishments.

I love that Wycliffe's faculty and staff members give themselves so generously to their students and to the Church and to the CollegeÕs mission. And I love it that we enjoy one another's company.

I love it that we've been blessed with so many bright, gifted, interesting students, devoted to Christ and compelled by his love. I love being able to think of our graduates and former students with pride and admiration.

I love our common assumption that we're all here to learn, with the implication that none of us already knows it all. I love the great diversity among us of our personal experiences of God's grace. I love joining with others here in daily corporate confession, a humbling reminder that the race is not yet finished.

I love being part of the Anglican world, in communion not only with the theologically like-minded but also with those who begin from different premises, spiritual brothers and sisters who challenge me without ceasing to care for me.

I love being part of the Toronto School of Theology, and being so often surprised and helped and opened up by the wisdom and Christian witness of my colleagues from other traditions.

And I love knowing that God finds ways to use me and others, in all our weakness and neediness, in the ministry of Christian study and teaching. It is a great privilege. Thanks be to God, by whose grace we pray that all our loves might be rightly ordered.
Alan L. Hayes

A letter from Michael

I appreciate the opportunity to use this vehicle to keep in touch with the Wycliffe College community to express my deep gratitude to you for your prayers and for your beautiful letters of encouragement. Elaine and I now have a treasure chest of affection and love to take with us.

Many of you have been kind enough to ask after my health and I am pleased to write that these months of rest are being effective, so much so that I was able to complete the Toronto half-marathon at the end of September. (Though I did find myself at one stage looking over my shoulder to see if there were any runners still behind me!) Now I feel ready to consider my next ministry and both Elaine and I are eagerly waiting to see where the Lord leads us next.

These months have given me an extended opportunity for reflection, reflection about leadership, education, ministry, and the Anglican Church. The years as Principal at Wycliffe were years of extraordinary learning for me, and I hope that I can carry that developing wisdom into my next ministry. In particular, I find myself reflecting on what it means to "make a difference", the importance of God's gifts of courage and boldness, the necessity for what one might call divine optimism, the simple effectiveness of faithful presence, the sheer indispensability of encouragement, and the incredible difference that it makes to us all that Jesus Christ is with us. "If you had been here," notes Martha, "my brother would not have died." Well, we know the end of that story, the supernatural return from the dead of her brother Lazarus. Jesus was there - and his presence makes all the difference.

May the Lord Jesus Christ, who is with you all, make his presence known to you in countless and wonderful ways: for the glory of his name.

Michael Pountney

New Faces on the Wycliffe Scene

The Reverend Susan Bell Susan Bell was invited this year to become our first college chaplain, overseeing our services of Holy Eucharist on Wednesday afternoons and holy days.
Whether the rite is Book of Common Prayer or Book of Alternative Services or Kenyan, whether the music is traditional or contemporary, Susan tries to make sure that we know what weÕre doing in our liturgical arrangements, and why weÕre doing it. She plans services; she meets with presiders, preachers, and assistants; and she trains those who read lessons, lead intercessions, and sing the psalms. "I particularly love the interaction I have with students," Susan says. "TheyÕre really fun. TheyÕre just great."

Susan came to Wycliffe after a B.A. at McMaster in English and history, three years in England studying singing, and two years working in Guelph and singing in the famed choir of the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Elora. She achieved a distinguished record in her M.Div. program, and in her last year served as senior student. She won the handsome Alumni Doctoral Fellowship, and is now in the second year of a Th.D. program in Church history. The chaplaincy is very part-time.

Susan began her M.Div. program by having a daughter, Emily, and she began her Th.D. program by having a son, Nicholas. Last year she was ordained deacon by the bishop of Toronto and appointed to a part-time assistant curacy.

In most Anglican communities worship is led by the those who are the pastors and teachers, and itÕs appropriate that Susan is also a teaching assistant. "ItÕs exciting to share your enthusiasm for a subject that you yourself love, and see people responding with the same kind of enthusiasm," she says.

She was a little surprised to discover that teaching Church history can be a pastoral and spiritual office. "Students read an historical document about baptism or mission or Church authority and find something that really challenges their understanding of the Gospel," Susan comments. Some students seek her out for personal counsel. "You can see a light go on in students when they make connections between the historical Church and their own life of faith," she says.

The chaplaincy, too, is a teaching office, and Susan is finding that to teach is also to learn. "Being chaplain at Wycliffe has been forcing me to think through liturgy in ways I didnÕt expect," she says.

Wednesday afternoon eucharists at Wycliffe have recently been attracting not only students, faculty, staff, and spouses, but also graduates, trustees, and other friends of the College. Susan herself thinks that one of the chapelÕs greatest strengths, in GodÕs grace, has been the roster of preachers. "The sermons are fantastic," she says. But in the SpiritÕs chemistry, SusanÕs warm liturgical presence helps as well. One graduate says, "I think that Wycliffe chapel has become the best church in Toronto."

Joseph L. Mangina Joseph Mangina comes to Wycliffe as successor to John Webster in the field of systematic theology. He received his Ph.D. (1994) from Yale University, the topic of his dissertation being "The Practical Voice of Dogmatic Theology: Karl Barth on the Christian Life", which deals with the self-involvement motif in Barth. He is revising his dissertation for publication as a book. Professor ManginaÕs interest in Barth has extended to a wider concern for ecclesiology, ecumenism, and Christian formation.

He has taught at Yale Divinity School and Le Moyne College, prior to coming to Wycliffe. Currently he is teaching various introductory and advanced courses, and future plans are to offer courses on the theology of Barth, Ecclesiology, and the theological ethics of Stanley Hauerwas.

Joseph comes to Toronto with his wife Elisa who is a keen medievalist being enrolled in the Medieval Studies program at Cornell. She has joined the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir, and will be continuing her studies in the organ here. Joseph and Elisa are parishoners at St.Martin-in-the-Fields in west Toronto where they have become involved in the music of the church and other ministries.

Peter Patterson It's not strictly accurate to refer to Peter Patterson as Wycliffe's "new" Business Director. For one thing, he's now been on board for almost a year, and for another we've actually never really had a previous business director. Peter's responsibilities essentially cover the non-academic aspects of the college, largely finance, administration, and maintenance.

Peter certainly comes to the job with excellent credentials since his actuarial training provides a good financial base, while thirteen years as the CEO of a large international insurance operation speaks to his business skills and his experience in working with people.

We have already benefited from Peter's time here with a balanced budget proposed for the current year and an easy-to-understand financial communicating style. We've adopted a new bursary policy, designed to support recruitment and scholarship and to assure the earning power of our student trust funds. New development software has been introduced to support the long-range development plan that has been formulated and even the appearance of the business area has been improved with its recent "facelift"!

As well as working at Wycliffe, Peter is active in other Christian endeavours as a member of World Vision Canada's Board (World Vision is Canada's largest international charity) and Treasurer of his own parish church, St. James', Humber Bay. Both of Peter's sons, Andrew and Paul who are at university, are pretty handy with computers and have assisted with Wycliffe's computer network. You will often see Barbara, his wife, around the college, perhaps at chapel and dinner on Wednesdays or taking an occasional course. We welcome Peter and his family to our Wycliffe community.

Dr. Thomas Power Wycliffe's new librarian is a man who has learned from life's experiences to wear many hats at the same time, to remain flexible, and to work effectively under stress. He will likely need all these attributes in the coming year as the merger between the Wycliffe and Trinity libraries begins to take shape.

Tom Power emigrated from Ireland in 1987, having received his Ph.D. in history from the University of Dublin. He came with his wife Marlene to teach history at the University of New Brunswick; but four years later he found himself in Toronto teaching part-time at St. Michael's College while pursuing a degree in library science and working at the Robart's Library. Life grew even busier with the arrival of daughter Emily, and then later their son Brendan.

A couple of years were spent as a librarian in the separate school system before starting at Wycliffe this past August. He is, Tom says, delighted to be in a university environment once again. He and Marlene are active lay people in their church, and Tom can often be found leading Mid-Morning Devotions in the reading room. When asked how he managed through all those demanding, difficult years, Tom simply says that "God has always provided all of his and his family's needs and blessed him in so many ways."

SEAD event

This past June, Wycliffe College sponsored and hosted the second annual conference of the Canadian chapter of SEAD (Scholarly Engagement with Anglican Doctrine), the movement for "dynamic orthodoxy" which began in the Episcopal Church in the late 1980s. The keynote speaker this June was an evangelical scholar bishop, FitzSimons Allison. Fitz earned his D.Phil from Oxford, and taught Church history at Virginia Theological Seminary and at the University of the South before becoming rector of Grace Church, New York, and then bishop of South Carolina. He is now retired. The following is a highly condensed version of his two addresses.

Take heed! Beware the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of the Sadducees. (Matt. 16:6) This warning is given the disciples in a boat following the feeding of the multitude. Slowly the disciples realize Jesus is speaking of the teaching of the Pharisees and that of the Sadducees. If he meant "teaching" why did he not say so? Why did he use the term "yeast"?

The disciples were aware of the crucial importance of yeast which can ruin bread and spoil wine. I was once shown how a friend makes wine. In a five-gallon glass jug containing water, sugar, grape juice, and yeast, he ran a tube through the stopper and into a glass of water that was bubbling with released air. I asked what the glass of water with the tube in it was for. He explained that it was an "air lock". I asked, "Why don't you just let the air out of the jug?" He explained that since we are surrounded with unseen yeasts, they would ruin the wine and make it undrinkable without the air lock.

Jesus is telling us that the air we breathe is full of destructive and malignant yeast that can spoil and destroy the Good News. This dangerous yeast is the teachings of the Pharisees and the Sadducees. The church's subsequent use of creeds and catechisms are the functional equivalent of the air lock. We must only resist the historical temptation to give people the air lock to drink rather than the wine that it protects.

The yeast of the Sadducees
Let us look first at the yeast, the teaching, of the Sadducees. Their teaching denied the resurrection and any sense of rewards, punishments, or accountability after death. Their logic was based on the false premise that material is the only reality. Consequently, in the resurrection life the same conditions must prevail as in the earthly life. Hence, the absurdity of having seven husbands is evidence against the resurrection.

The yeast of the Sadducees is ubiquitous. A modern near equivalent is secularism: this-world-is-all-there-is-ism. The twentieth century has produced unprecedented tyranny and death in the name of hopes that were limited to history. Whatever hope there is for justice and for what is right, according to this yeast, is to be found within history alone. The French Reign of Terror, the Third Reich, and the Communist ideal all had their "gods that failed". The Sadducees' hope persists in spite of its unparalleled record of evil.

If there is no resurrection, no final accountability, then the only moral alternative is "just don't get caught." This yeast is undermining the moral foundation of all cultural institutions. The way out of this Sadducean and cultural decay is, of course, to drink the wine and not the contents of the air lock. The blood we taste as wine is the life of Jesus Christ, outpoured.

The yeast of the Pharisees
The Pharisees believed ardently in the daily and traditional application of the law. The facile dismissal of Pharisees is a sad mistake. Unless they are duly appreciated no substantial grasp of Christianity is possible. Even St. Luke's harsh definition needs to be seen in perspective ("Beware the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy." Luke 12:1). Hypocrisy itself has some virtuous dimensions. If we did not pretend to values, behaviours, and standards that excel our actual behaviour what would happend to civilization itself? The Epistle of James warns us to "bridle" our tongues (1:26). Is this not an exhortation to restrain ourselves from honest expressions of our feelings?

Why then was Jesus so hard on the Pharisees? The most significant picture of the Pharisee in Scripture is perhaps the story of the Pharisee and the tax-collector in the temple. The Pharisee thanks God that he is not like other people, extortioners, unjust, and adulterers. The object of Pharisee religion is to escape condemnation, to feel justified. For contemporary Pharisees escape is by self-esteem. The cult of self-esteem attempts to substitute disclosure and acceptance for repentance and forgiveness. The heavy price paid is the abolition of mercy, the obsolescence of forgiveness, the reduction of justice, and the nurture of self-indulgence resulting in a religion of desperate attempts at self-satisfaction.

Jesus' invitation to all Pharisees, then and now, is, "Come to me, all who labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest." This is an exceedingly strange thing for Jesus to say since he has just finished the Sermon on the Mount, arguably the heaviest burden and tightest yoke of any religion anywhere at any time. The only way we can understand this apparent contradiction is to look at one of the functions of the Sermon on the Mount. Like many passages in the Gospel, it involves the demand of God's law that prepares us for crucifixion and resurrection.

One of the unfortunate results of placing the sermon immediately following the reading of the Gospel in our new liturgies is that the preacher feels an obligation to preach from what has just been read, and not on the Old Testament or the Epistle. One of the difficulties about this is that the selections from the Gospel are rarely gospel, whereas the Epistle is almost invariably gospel, looking at subjects after what has been accomplished on Good Friday and Easter.

One of the very purposes of the law, and of the Sermon on the Mount, is to consign us all to condemnation. We Pharisees especially need to let down the heavy burden of establishing our self-righteousness and know that our righteousness before God is simply that we have been shown mercy. Some lines that sum up what I believe about the yeast of the Sadducee and the yeast of the Pharisee are found in a very short play written by W.B. Yeats in 1931. Its title is "The Resurrection". There are two main players, a Greek and a Hebrew, and they meet Christ on the day of the resurrection. At the end of the play, the chorus comes out and sings: "Odour of blood when Christ was slain, made all Platonic tolerance vain, and vain all Doric discipline."
Alan Hayes


Millard J. Erickson, The Evangelical Left: Encountering Postconservative Evangelical Theology. Grand Rapids:Baker, 1997
Millard J. Erickson, Postmodernizing the Faith: Evangelical Responses to the Challenge of Postmodernism. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1998

Erickson has written two books that deserve notice for they call attention to important shifts and developments that are occuring within evangelicalism. In The Evangelical Left, Erickson briefly rehearses the history of evangelicalism from the eighteenth century through to the present where he sees the development of a new strain of evangelicalism which he designates "postconservative evangelicalism." He identifies this movement with Fuller Seminary, a number of books published by IVP and with the specific "postmodern" theological proposals of Bernard Ramm, Clark Pinnock, Stanley Grenz and James McClendon. In successive chapters, Erickson sets forth what he views as significant modifications to the traditional evangelical views of Scripture, God and salvation. Although Erickson values some of the developments in postmodern evangelicalism, he does wonder whether this "neoorthodox-like" movement should continue to be considered evangelical.

Erickson's second volume deals more specifically with the phenomenon of postmodernism with its denial of objective knowledge, and metaphysical, historical and scientific methods of explanation. Following an introduction to postmodernism, Erickson examines six evangelical responses to the phenomenon of postmodernism. The negative responses of David Wells, Thomas Oden and Francis Schaeffer contrast the more positive responses of Stanley Grenz, J. Richard Middleton and Brian Walsh and B. Keith Putt. Erickson's sampling of different evangelical responses to Postmodernism are helpful in terms of bringing the reader up to speed on important developments in recent theology. Erickson points to the direction that his own very cautious response to postmodernism would take, but he does not develop it fully in this book.

Marion Taylor


Japan is not for the fainthearted. Not only are earthquakes a daily possibility, it was not always possible to tell whether your food was still alive or not. One night at a sushi restaurant, my husband Tim ordered surf clam assuming that it would be dead. With a gleam in his eye the sushi chef served up the surf clam, and when it jerked itself on the bed of rice Tim realised that it was still alive.

Incidents such as these kept us continually on our toes during our year in Tokyo. Tim is a law student and was working as an intern at a Japanese law firm for the year and I was serving as the deacon at the only English-speaking Anglican Church in Tokyo, St. AlbanÕs. The parish consisted primarily of expatriates, with the average stay of each parishioner rarely being longer than five years. Since the congregation was so diverse, from Americans to Zambians, it was like the entire Anglican Communion in microcosm. Because St. AlbanÕs was the only English-speaking Anglican parish in Tokyo, the parishioners were forced to get along with one another and compromises were often struck over both liturgical and theological issues.

Both my husband and I feel very fortunate to have been able to experience what we did in Tokyo. It was wonderful to worship every Sunday with Christians from all over the world and to have lived in a city that it is so full of life and energy.

Jenny Andison (M.Div Ō97) is now serving as the curate at St. TimothyÕs Church in Agincourt, Toronto and is working on her ThM on a part time basis.

Comings and Goings - Wycliffe's faculty

Alan Hayes was elected in June to the Communications Advisory Committee of the Association of Theological Schools; this group reviews the publications, website, and media relations of the ATS, and meets twice a year in Pittsburgh. He was also elected to the board of the American Society of Church History. He participated in General Synod in Montreal as a consultant, and attended the ATS biennial meeting in Baltimore in June and the board meeting of the Historical Society of the Episcopal Church in Boston. He completed ten months as priest-in-charge of St. James' Church, Humber Bay, on May 31, and was appointed Acting Principal of the College as of June 1.

Ann Jervis has completed her commentary on Galatians. It is now at Hendrickson's Publishers, with an expected publication date of August, 1999. Over the summer Dr. Jervis also wrote an entry for InterVarsity Press' Dictionary of New Testament Backgrounds. Now, among other things, she is writing a commentary on 2 Peter for InterVaristy Press' Women's Bible Commentary. Among the presentations that Ann will give in the near future are a paper at the Society of Biblical Literature in November, entitled "Paul the Poet in 1 Timothy," and "Discipleship" for a meeting of the Canadian Council of Churches.

Andrew Lincoln served as Visiting Professor of New Testament, Summer School, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California, June 22 - July 3, 1998. He published "I Am the Resurrection and the Life: The Resurrection Message of the Fourth Gospel", in ed. R.N. Longenecker, Life in the Face of Death: The Resurrection Message of the New Testament (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998) 122-44. On October 21 at Wycliffe College, he delivered the Lord and Lady Coggan Inaugural Lecture, "Gospel Truth - the Fourth Gospel?"

In August Professor Joseph Mangina attended a conference on "The Vitality of the Reformation Today," sponsored by Luther Seminary in St. Paul, Minnesota and the Karl Barth Society of North America. He is currently working on an article titled "Ecumenical Theology" that will appear in the Dictionary of Historical Theology, to be published by Paternoster Press.

Merv Mercer took part in the ATS (Association of Theological Schools) conference on "Future Funding for Canadian Theological Education" in Toronto. As a member of the newly established Student Resources Advisory Committee (ATS), he attended an initial planning day in Pittsburgh. He also attended a three-day program "Developing the Theological Vocation of a Theological Faculty" in California in early December, this being the culmination of a series of conferences on this theme. The earlier participation was in Atlanta last Spring.

Professor David Reed's busy year included being appointed to the Primate's Theological Commission (the first meeting was held in June). He also led a seminar for the Canadian Caucus of Theological Field Educators on "Spirituality for Ministry: Pentecostal and Evangelical" in March, and he represented Wycliffe and the Anglican Church at the Episcopal Church's "Seminary Consultation on Mission", held at Nashotah House in September.

Professor Glen Taylor gave two presentations at the bi-annual clergy conference of the Diocese of Algoma, October 6 - 8, 1998. He spoke on Preaching From the Old Testament, especially the Psalms. Glen and Marion (Professor Marion Taylor) assisted in the five point Parish of Almaquin during the summer. Marion preached this Fall at Donway Baptist Church and Little Trinity. She is working on a commentary on Ezekiel for Intervarsity Press' Women's Bible Commentary.

Patrick Yu, Coordinator of the Summer Internship program, completed a whirlwind tour of Western Canada in October, including visits to the dioceses of Edmonton and New Westminster. The purpose was to introduce Wycliffe's field education and internship program, and to explore ways of cooperating with western dioceses as they consider sending candidates to Wycliffe.

Fellowship to be Awarded

The new Helliwell-Thompson Doctoral Fellowship will be awarded for the first time to a Th.D. or Ph.D. student beginning studies in September 1999. The Fellow will receive $25,000 a year for the first two years of study. The Fellowship is named for the two donors, Mr. Paul Helliwell and the Reverend Dr. Arthur Thompson, both trustees and Fellows of the College. Applications are due January 15, 1999. Information is available from the Registrar.

Wycliffe Returns to the Holy Land

A College tour of the Holy Land is tentatively planned for Reading Week of the Spring term. (Tentative dates are from February 10th to the 22nd, 1999.) Preference is being given to current students at Wycliffe, but there will likely be room for members of the broader Wycliffe family as well. Dr. Steven Notley, an Anglican New Testament scholar based in Jerusalem, will be the guide. Faculty presence will include Drs. Joseph Mangina, Glen Taylor and the Rev. Dr. Patrick Yu. Anyone interested in going should contact the College immediately at 416-946-3535.

A message from Alix Arnett
Trustee and member of the Development Committee

For we do not proclaim ourselves; we proclaim Jesus Christ as Lord and ourselves as your slaves for Jesus' sake. II Corinthians 4:5

Advent ushers in a season of expectation of the Saviour's birth. In the life of Wycliffe College, the mid-point of the academic and fiscal years converge. Last year your generous support meant the Annual Fund exceeded its target and the financial statements reflect a small surplus. Now the Annual Fund must pick up momentum towards meeting its $300,000 objective for 1998/99.

Wycliffe, housed in a venerable Victorian edifice at 5 Hoskin Avenue, comprises a residence, a refectory, a chapel, a library, tranquil study space, classrooms, offices, a reading room, a bookstore and common rooms, requires constant maintenance - an expensive proposition! For instance, the $170,000 outstanding balance owing for the building's new sprinkler system, mandated by the Toronto Fire Marshall, is one of the costs that must be met by this year's Annual Fund.

Last summer, as an auditing student in Dr. Andrew Lincoln's course on The Letter of Paul to the Colossians, I often sat beside Isaac Martinez, a youthful South American born Baptist pastor, living in Hamilton. Besides the Anglican students that Wycliffe trains and educates, Isaac is typical of the many students from other denominations who make a choice to come to Wycliffe, based on the College's reputation for theological scholarship. Wycliffe, in turn, has a hand in shaping Isaac's spiritual and academic formation and the lines of communication between Isaac's community of faith and Wycliffe's are strengthened. Isaac's business card bears the following portion of scripture:

Porque no nos predicamos a nostros mismos, sino a Jesueristo como Senor, y a nostros como vuestros siervos por amor a Jesus. II Corinthians 4:5

I offer Isaac's story as one specific example of how Wycliffe carries out its mission of challenging and encouraging those who seek a fuller understanding of Jesus Christ and assisting in the theological formation of Christian men and women.

"But why should people give money to theological schools? And why should students leave jobs that pay real money and put their lives and sometimes their families in economic austerity? It's the gospel, it's about really important stuff that can make a difference in the world, and it's worth that kind of effort and gift and commitment. We are not just curators of a prior religious culture that needs to be preserved for study and reflection. We are participants in the purposes of God. I care really deeply about that." Daniel O. Aleshire, Executive Director of the Association of Theological Schools.

I believe that the gospel can make a difference in the world and I urge you to join your voice with mine. By making a donation to the Wycliffe Annual Fund, in the enclosed envelope, you will be supporting the College's mission so that its work can go forward unencumbered by deficit again this year.

Alix Arnett
Trustee, Development Committee member

Alumni/ae News

Rev. Dr. Maurice Wilkinson W48, accompanied by his wife, Kathleen (Ironside) W58 (S.Th.), attended the Annual Alumni/ae Conference in October. They were warmly greeted and applauded, and thanked for their continuing interest in and support of the college.

Recent visitors to the college included four members of the class of 1958, three of them accompanied by their wives. They were Canon Barry (and Rachel) Patrick, Rev. Ernest (and Barbara) Eldridge, Rev. Peter (and Pamela) Niblock, and Rev. Stephen Oliver. They attended Evening Prayer in the college chapel, enjoyed a reception in the Cody Library, and then joined faculty and students for dinner in the Refectory.

WATCH FOR IT! A new book by Principal Emeritus Stackhouse is being readied for publication by the Anglican Book Centre. Entitled Recession and Recovery in the Churches, the book is based on visits to thirty-three congregations from a variety of denominations in many parts of Canada.

The newly elected president of the Wycliffe Alumni/ae Association is Rev. David Franks of the class of 1983. He succeeds Rev. Dr. David Sinclair W62. Other officers of the Association are vice-president Rev. Earl Gerber W53, recording secretary Rev. Raymond Carder W60, treasurer Rev. Alan Chaffee W81, and assistant treasurer Rev. William (Bill) Montgomery W96.

Rev. Dr. Marney Patterson W56, has accepted an invitation to conduct a two week mission in the Diocese of Rhua, Tanzania. While Marney has ministered in other African countries - including Kenya, Uganda, Liberia and Malawi - this is his first visit to Tanzania.

Rev. Mervyn Everall W63, has been appointed priest-in-charge of the parish of Minden-Kinmount (Diocese of Toronto).

There is an interesting tribute to Bishop Ralph Spence W68, in a recent issue of the Huron Church News. Written by Rev. Roger McCombe W70, the article recalls their days as students at Wycliffe. According to Roger, there was always a smile on Ralph's face, and a scheme in his mind. "It felt good to be in his presence or involved in his pursuits."

While Rev. David Sissmore W70, is now associate priest at Holy Trinity Church, Thornhill, Diocese of Toronto, he continues to have a close relationship with Newfoundland where he served as parish priest for several years. He and his wife have purchased a retirement home in that far eastern part of Canada.

A recent letter from Rev. Abraham Lincoln W75, tells of his ministry in the Department of Music and Communications of the Mar Thoma Syrian Church in Tiruvalla, India. He writes: "our country is passing through a difficult time - please pray for us".

Rev. David Ashton W81, has been appointed Academic Dean at Rocky Mountain College, Calgary.

Rev. Glyn Easson W83, having served in southern Ontario since graduation from Wycliffe and subsequent ordination in 1983 - most recently as associate priest at St. Paul's, Bloor Street, Toronto, has moved to British Columbia to become rector of St. John's, Duncan.

The Rt. Rev. George Lemmon W62, bishop of the Diocese of Fredericton, has appointed Rev. Wilfred Langmaid W89, as Anglican chaplain to students at the University of New Brunswick and St. Thomas University, both in the provincial capital.

Cathy O'Connor W89, is continuing her work as a hearing case counsellor with the Canadian Hearing Society. She is a past president of the Ontario chapter of the Canadian Hard of Hearing Association.

On August 9th, Rev. Timothy Vickery W89, was inducted as rector of St. Thomas' Church, Kingston, in the Diocese of Ontario. Tim and Jeananne W89, have ministered in the Yukon for the past eight years.

Rev. Gordon Thompson W90, is now rector of the parish of Portland in Saint John, New Brunswick.

Rev. Robert Sweet W94, has moved from Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan, to All Saints Church, Melfort. His predecessor at the Melfort parish was one of his Wycliffe classmates, Rev. Giovanni Di Vincenzo who has begun his new ministry in Calgary.

From Changsha to Toronto: a heart-warming story. Rev. Dr. Paul W95 and Dr. Janet Friesen have announced the birth of their daughter Hilary Anastasi Hui Lin on January 6th, 1998, and her adoption on September 1st, in Changsha, Hunan Province, the Peoples Republic of China. Anya, as the little one is to be called, was baptized in Toronto's Church of St. Mary Magdalene on October 28th.

Rev. Jennifer (Jenny) Andison W97, has returned from St. Alban's, Tokyo, and is serving as assistant curate at St. Timothy's, Agincourt in the Diocese of Toronto. Jenny was ordained priest in St. Timothy's on November 15th.

Shelagh Ashworth W87, Stephanie Douglas W98, and Mary Pataki W95, were ordained to the diaconate in St. James' Cathedral on All Saints Day, while in St. Paul's Church, L'Amoreaux, Katherine Treganowan W97, was ordained priest. On the evening of November 4th in Trinity Church, Barrie, Ontario, Rev. Murray Bateman W97, and Rev. Timothy Wiebe W96, were ordained to the priesthood.

In Memoriam
Canon James Merry W62, died on June 10th.
Rev. Walter Johnson W49, died on August 9th.
Rev. Ronald Morissey W35, died on September 15th.
Rev. Frank Pooley W34, died on October 10th.
Rev. John Hayes W63, died on October 18th.
Canon William Hewton W64, died on October 26th.

Convocation '98

The Degree of Doctor of Divinity (Honoris Causa) was conferred on Bishop William Arthur Murray (Mandeville, Jamaica). The Degree of Doctor of Sacred Letters (Honoris Causa) was conferred on Betty Alice Ann Gracie of Orillia, and James Frederick Kennedy, past chair of the Board of Trustees (Wycliffe College). The Rev. Dr. Arthur Dewey Thompson W55, was installed as a Fellow of the College. Brent Ham, senior student, 97/98 presented the Senior Stick to Janet Read Hockin, senior student 98/99.

The graduates of 1998 are:
The Degree of Doctor of Theology
Sydney Jacob Hielema
Marion Eleanor Wyse

The Degree of Master of Theology
Judy Berinai
Nora Ming Nor Wu

The Degree of Master of Divinity
Murray Hubert Bateman
Susan Jennifer Anne Bell
Roderick Donald Black
Donald George Daley
David Peter French
Brent Warren Aubrey Ham
Margaret Ann Milne
John Alan Pearce
Judith Kaye Pierce
Edward Lloyd Rix
Paul John Walker
George Derrick Westhaver

The Degree of Master of Religion
Barbara Mae Hudspith

The Degree of Master in Theological Studies
Heather Leigh Fitz-Gerald
Peter Donald Neumann

Title of Licentiate in Theology
Annette Margot Bath
Evelyn Fisher
Kathleen Greidanus

Thanks to
We gratefully acknowledge the generosity of Georgian Pontiac Buick GMC Inc.(Barrie) and Wilson Niblett Chevrolet Oldsmobile Ltd. (Richmond Hill) for the donation of lease cars to two internship students this summer. Special thanks to Mr. Ralph Phillips, member of St. Paul's L'Amoreaux, for sharing the vision and arranging the contacts.

Refocus '99
Mark your calendars April 18th to 22nd
A time for Alumni/ae to spend at Wycliffe enjoying the library, the chapel and college resources. For study, quiet and just plain relaxation, with a special focus on clergy self-care and spiritual well-being. Speakers: members of the faculty and Diane Marshall. More information and registration forms will be sent to you in the New Year.

Open House
November was "Open House" month at the college, when all those interested in exploring their call to Ministry were invited to share in college activities. The next Open House is planned for March '99. For further information and to arrange your visit, contact the Front Desk Receptionist - telephone: 416-946-3535.

Library Merger Signing
On Tuesday, November 3, 1998 the official signing of the document merging the libraries of Wycliffe and Trinity College took place in the Board Room of Trinity. Present at this happy occasion were Dr. Alan Hayes (Acting Principal), Mr. Peter Patterson (Business Manager), Ms. Cindy Derrenbacker (Special Projects Librarian), and Dr. Thomas Power (Chief Librarian), all of Wycliffe College. Present for Trinity were Thomas Delworth (Provost), Dr. Don Wiebe (Dean Faculty of Divinity), Mr. Terry Grier (Chair, Board of Trustees), Bishop John Bothwell (Chancellor), and Ms. Linda Corman (Librarian). Construction began in mid-October on the renovation of the former engineering students residence in Devonshire House, the expected completion date being the Fall of 1999. Both colleges are excited about the enhanced library facilities that will ensue from this development, making the new John W. Graham Library the pre-eminent collection for the study of Anglicanism in Canada.

Insight (Online Edition) December 1998